Umar Bin Khatab was the second caliph in islam after Abu Bakar Shiddiq. He was born 12 years after the birth of Prophet Muhammad Peace be Upon Him (PBUH) In the 581 years of grace exactly. His father was Khatab and his mother was Khotmah. He was grown up in Bani Adi circle which was one of the Quraisy Clans.
Before accepting islam Umar Bin khatab was known as someone who was terribly hostile to muslim because he still held his ancestor’s doctrine that was paganism. He often made the bad deeds which was commonly commited by Jahiliah and tortured moslems. However, he finally got God’s guidance and accepted islam on dzulhijjah month in the sixth prophery year, actually, 3 days after Hamzah Bin Abdul Muthalib accepted Islam
When Abu Bakar Shiddiq functioned as a caliph, Umar Bin Khatab was one of his main counsellors. After Abu Bakar Shiddiq passed away in 634, Umar Bin Khatab functioned as the next caliph. Through his administration, The power of islam sharply increased. By his leadership, Islam troops were able to hold Mesopotamia territoty and some parts of Persia which had been under Sassanid-dynasty outhority before. Moreover, he was also able to dominate Egypt, Palestine, Syiria, north Africa and Armenia from Roman emporer (Byzantium)
In 636 years, On the Yarmuk battle which happened in Damaskus district, 20 thausand of islam troops succeeded in defeating 70 thausand- Roman troops, therefore, Roman authority in southern-small Asia ended. Other Islam troops in a small number were also getting victory over the bigger number of Persian troops in Qadisiyyah war which happened near Eufrat River. In that War, general of islam Saad bin Abi Waqqas could conquer Sassanids and succeessed in Killing Rustam Farrukhzad who was the hesitating in Persia
Umar Bin Khatab made many administrative reformation and controlled public policy closely, creating administrative system for current conquered territory. Furthermore, he also commanded to organize census in all territories of islam outhority. In 638, he governed to expand and renovate Masjidil Haram in Makkah and Nabawi mosque in Madinah. He was well known to have unpretentious lifestyle. Which was much more different from the leaders in this country nowadays
Umar Bin Khatab passed away because of being stabbed on Wednesday of dzulhijjah in 23 of hijriah when taking fajr pray. The offender was a Majusi named Abu lu’luah who was Al Mughirah Bin Syu’bah’s slave who was ordered for killing him. He was buried beside prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakar Shiddiq. He passed away at the age of 63 years old. After his death, caliph position was held by Usman Bin Affan
the story about him has been translated by me from Avivah’s book which tittle is Tokoh tokoh Dunia yang berani mati.